Friends of the Earth and Greenpeace

Friends of the Earth and Greenpeace
   These two environmental groups established themselves in Britain in 1977 and 1971 respectively, with Friends of the Earth gaining instant media attention for its campaign against non-returnable bottles. Both organizations share a common environmental agenda (pollution control, nature preservation, wildlife/habitat preservation, antinuclear technology and nuclear arms), but what distinguishes them is strategy and political style. Membership of both organizations grew in the 1980s and 1990s. Studies estimate that about 8 percent of the British population (4.5 million) are members of some environmental group (Garner 1996:64).
   Greenpeace is the more ‘radical’ organization in terms of its campaigning style which includes direct action and publicity stunts, while Friends of the Earth adopts a traditional lobbying approach, seeking to influence government ministers, MPs and the public about its environmental agenda. Perhaps the most infamous example of Greenpeace’s campaigning was its success in reversing a British government decision to dump the disused oil storage facility Brent Spar in 1995. Greenpeace is also associated in the public mind with having its flagship vessel Rainbow Warrior sunk by agents of the French secret service in July 1985 in the harbour at Auckland, New Zealand; one of its members was killed.
   Greenpeace and Friends of the Earth have, according to McCormick (1991:158) moved away from ‘complaint and criticism, and towards research-based appeals to policy makers, industry and the public’. Indeed, such is the public disquiet and/or suspicion about ‘official’ science and information about environmental matters (from government or industry sources) that more people believe the scientific expertise of environmental groups such as Greenpeace and Friends of the Earth, which have a strong reputation for excellence and trustworthiness. The transition away from confrontational campaigning has been most notable with Friends of the Earth, with Greenpeace still retaining its radical, media-orientated style. These changes have meant that Friends of the Earth has moved towards being an ‘insider’ group, that is, accepted as part of the ‘environment policy community’ in the UK (though not as completely as other environmental organizations such as the National Trust and Council for the Protection of Rural England, which have more access to the policy-making process). On the other hand, Greenpeace has maintained its ‘outsider’ status, as a less compromising environmental organization. See also: Amnesty International; animal rights; green consumerism; hunt saboteurs
   Further reading
    Garner, R. (1996) Environmental Politics, London: Prentice Hall/Harvester Wheatsheaf.
    McCormick, J. (1991) British Politics and the Environment, London: Earthscan.

Encyclopedia of contemporary British culture . . 2014.

Игры ⚽ Нужен реферат?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Earth Summit 2002 — The World Summit on Sustainable Development, WSSD or Earth Summit 2002 took place in Johannesburg, South Africa, from 26 August to 4 September 2002. It was convened to discuss sustainable development by the United Nations. WSSD gathered a number… …   Wikipedia

  • nuclear and arms industries and protestors —    There have been a number of both general and specific campaigns and protest against the arms industry and particularly nuclear weapons. These have at times focused on individual sites where nuclear weapons have been located. A prime example of …   Encyclopedia of contemporary British culture

  • The Skeptical Environmentalist — Infobox Book name = The Skeptical Environmentalist: Measuring the Real State of the World title orig = Verdens Sande Tilstand translator = image caption = author = Bjørn Lomborg illustrator = cover artist = country = language = series = subject …   Wikipedia

  • Greenpeace Aotearoa New Zealand — Infobox Company | company name = Greenpeace Aotearoa New Zealand company company type = Non Governmental Organisation company slogan = n/a. foundation = 1974, Auckland location = Auckland, New Zealand key people = industry = environmentalism… …   Wikipedia

  • The Body Shop — Infobox Company company name = The Body Shop International plc company company type = Public limited company foundation = 26th March, 1976 founder = Dame Anita Roddick location city = Brighton, England location country = United Kingdom key people …   Wikipedia

  • The ENDS Report — Founded in 1978, The ENDS Report is the UK s leading journal of environmental policy and business, covering news, official reports, UK and EU policy and legislation and how environmental issues affect corporate strategy. It is published monthly… …   Wikipedia

  • Anti-nuclear groups in the United States — Main article: Anti nuclear movement in the United States Anti nuclear movement Australia  · Austria  · Canada …   Wikipedia

  • Earth First! — is a radical environmental advocacy group [FBI par.9] that emerged in the Southwestern United States in 1979. Inspired by Rachel Carson s Silent Spring , Aldo Leopold s land ethic, and Edward Abbey s The Monkey Wrench Gang , a group of activists… …   Wikipedia

  • Green Architecture: Building for the 21st Century — ▪ 2008 Introduction James Wines       Green design was a pervasive topic in boardrooms and living rooms in 2007, particularly as the costs of maintaining the status quo became apparent. The building of shelter (in all its forms) consumes more… …   Universalium

  • Anti-nuclear movement in the United Kingdom — Anti nuclear movement Australia  · Austria  · Canada France  · Germany  · India Japan   …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”